Although rheumatic fever can affect any heart valve, it most commonly affects the mitral valve which lies between the two chambers of the left side of the heart. The damage can cause valve stenosis, valve regurgitation and/or damage to the heart muscle.
Why is mitral valve most affected in RHD?
Approximately 90% of people with RHD have mitral valve involvement. Mitral regurgitation the mitral valve does not close properly, causing backflow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. Mitral regurgitation is the most common manifestation of RHD, particularly in young people.
What is a rheumatic heart valve?
Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which the heart valves have been permanently damaged by rheumatic fever. The heart valve damage may start shortly after untreated or under-treated streptococcal infection such as strep throat or scarlet fever.
How does rheumatic disease cause mitral regurgitation?
Rheumatic heart disease chronically manifests as congestive heart failure from valvular involvement. Most commonly the mitral valve is affected, resulting in mitral stenosis or mitral regurgitation. Less commonly, the aortic valve can be involved; tricuspid valve involvement is rare, but reported.
What is hypertensive heart disease?
Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of high blood pressure that is present over a long time. Hypertension is a disorder characterized by consistently high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are given as two numbers.
Is mitral valve bicuspid?
opening is guarded by the mitral, or bicuspid, valve, so named because it consists of two flaps. The mitral valve is attached in the same manner as the tricuspid, but it is stronger and thicker because the left ventricle is by nature a more powerful pump working under high pressure.
Which valves are called semilunar valves?
The aortic and pulmonic valves are known as the semilunar valves, whereas the tricuspid and mitral valves are referred to as the atrioventricular valves.
What is tricuspid valve insufficiency?
Tricuspid regurgitation occurs when this valve doesn’t properly close. This can cause blood to flow back up into the right atrium when the right ventricle contracts. Over time, this condition can weaken your heart. Tricuspid regurgitation is also known as tricuspid valve insufficiency.
What is the difference between mitral valve prolapse and mitral valve insufficiency?
The mitral valve separates the two chambers of the left side of the heart. In mitral valve prolapse, the valve flaps bulge (prolapse) into the upper left chamber (atrium) during each heartbeat. Mitral valve prolapse can cause blood to leak backward, a condition called mitral valve regurgitation.
What is pulmonary valve insufficiency?
Pulmonary (or pulmonic) insufficiency (or incompetence, or regurgitation) is a condition in which the pulmonary valve is incompetent and allows backflow from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle of the heart during diastole.
What causes rheumatism?
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune condition, which means it’s caused by the immune system attacking healthy body tissue. However, it’s not yet known what triggers this. Your immune system normally makes antibodies that attack bacteria and viruses, helping to fight infection.