Although rheumatic fever can affect any heart valve, it most commonly affects the mitral valve which lies between the two chambers of the left side of the heart. The damage can cause valve stenosis, valve regurgitation and/or damage to the heart muscle.
Which valves are commonly affected by RF?
The valves most affected by rheumatic fever, in order, are the mitral, aortic, tricuspid, and pulmonary valves. In most cases, the mitral valve is involved with 1 or more of the other 3. In acute disease, small thrombi form along the lines of valve closure.
What is the most commonly affected valve in rheumatic fever?
In chronic rheumatic heart disease, the mitral valve alone is the most commonly affected valve in an estimated 50% to 60% of cases. Combined lesions of both the aortic and mitral valves occur in 20% of cases.
Which valve is most commonly affected by infective endocarditis?
Infective endocarditis develops most commonly on the mitral valve, closely followed in descending order of frequency by the aortic valve, the combined mitral and aortic valve, the tricuspid valve, and, rarely, the pulmonic valve. Mechanical prosthetic and bioprosthetic valves exhibit equal rates of infection.
Why is the mitral valve more prone to prolapse?
But in some people with mitral valve prolapse, one or both of the mitral valve leaflets have extra tissue or stretch more than normal, which causes them to bulge like a parachute into the left atrium each time the heart contracts. The bulging may keep the valve from closing tightly.
Which valves are most commonly affected?
Any valve in the heart can become diseased, but the aortic valve is most commonly affected. The other common type of heart valve condition happens when the opening of the valve is narrowed and stiff and the valve is not able to open fully when blood is trying to pass through; this is called stenosis (Figure 2).
Why is mitral valve affected in endocarditis?
Normally, heart valves are highly resistant to the attachment of bacteria and resulting infection. Damage to the heart valves and inner lining of the heart is the main risk factor for infective endocarditis because it leaves the tissue susceptible to bacterial overgrowth.
What is the most common cause of mitral stenosis?
Rheumatic fever is the most common cause of mitral valve stenosis. It can damage the mitral valve by causing the flaps to thicken or fuse.
Does mitral stenosis cause systolic or diastolic heart failure?
Because patients with mitral stenosis rely on atrial contraction for about 20% of their cardiac output, and tachycardia decreases diastolic filling time, the onset of atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular rate and loss of atrial contraction results in significant symptoms of low cardiac output and heart failure.
Does mitral valve stenosis cause right ventricular hypertrophy?
Long-standing, severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, whether precapillary (idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension or pulmonary valve stenosis) or postcapillary (mitral stenosis, cardiomyopathy), produces right ventricular hypertrophy and a sustained lower left parasternal lift.
Is mitral stenosis a diastolic murmur?
The diastolic murmur of mitral stenosis is of low pitch, rumbling in character, and best heard at the apex with the patient in the left lateral position. It commences after the opening snap of the mitral valve, and the duration of the murmur correlates with the severity of the stenosis.
What type of murmur is mitral valve prolapse?
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, and billowing mitral leaflets, is valvular heart disease. It is generally considered a benign condition, however, at times, it may present with sudden cardiac death, endocarditis or cerebrovascular accident.
Is mitral valve prolapse considered heart failure?
Mitral valve prolapse is a common cause of mitral regurgitation. That’s a condition in which some blood flows backward through the mitral valve with each heartbeat. Over years, moderate or severe mitral regurgitation can cause weakness of the heart muscle, known as congestive heart failure.
Is mitral valve prolapse considered congenital heart disease?
Mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation Congenital mitral valve anomalies are heart problems present at birth (congenital heart defects) that affect the valve between the heart’s upper left chamber (left atrium) and lower left chamber (left ventricle).
Can Rheumatoid arthritis cause heart valve problems?
The valvular lesions caused by rheumatoid arthritis have been known for a long time. The valves may be affected by unspecific inflammatory changes or, specifically, by rheumatoid granulomas identical with subcutaneous nodules that lead to the malfunctioning of the aortic or the mitral valve.
What is the most important valve in the heart?
The aortic valve regulates blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. Each valve has “leaflets,” or flaps, that act like small gates. These leaflets open to let blood flow into the heart’s chambers or to the body’s arteries, and close to keep the blood from flowing backward.
What causes heart valve disease?
Heart valve disease occurs when your heart’s valves do not work correctly. Common causes of valve disease include rheumatic fever, birth defects, degeneration over time and infection. This can be caused by valvular stenosis or valvular insufficiency.