Category Archives: Invasive Cardiology

Kinked Catheter during cardiac catheterization

Knotted Intravascular Catheters and Foreign Body Removal

Knotted catheters, guide wires and electrodes are rare but serious complications of angiographic procedures and line insertions. The percutaneous techniques and materials used in releasing knots are similar to those used in foreign body retrieval. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of both of these important skills. Managing knotted catheters Knotting…

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Left Main Aneurysm

Case Study: Left Main Aneurysm

Introduction: Left main coronary artery (LMCA) aneurysms are of extremely low incidence (0.1% in adults) and is often an incidental finding at coronary angiograms (ref 1). Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) exist when the dilatation of the vessel exceeds the diameter of the lumen by a factor of at least 1.5 (ref 2). The aetiology is…

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LIMA Graft

Case Study: LIMA to What?

Pre-operatively this patient was found to have three vessel disease with continuing angina and dyspnoea despite medical therapy. An elective CABG operation was performed involving SVG to RCA/PDA, SVG to INT/OM1 and Pedicle LIMA to Mid LAD. Post surgery the patient complained of having very mild angina on exertion and was admitted as a day…

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Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma

Case Study: Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma

This 32 yr old male was admitted to hospital with acute SOB and bleeding from the nose. The patient also noted the veins in his neck were more prominent and he had a feeling of “head congestion”. No weight loss, night sweats or lymphadenopathy. Initial echocardiogram (Figure 1) demonstrated a large pericardial effusion with some…

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Amplatzer Cardiac Plug

Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion: (LAAO)

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the commonest cardiac arrhythmia with a prevalence of 0.9% in the general population, increasing to >13% of people over the age of 80.1 As our population ages, the prevalence of AF will continue to rise with significant clinical and economic implications.2 The most feared and catastrophic complication of AF is stroke,…

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