Category Archives: Non-Invasive Cardiology

Atrial Septal Defect on ultrasound

Case Study: Defining an Unusual Atrial Septal Defect

This article reviews a case of a middle aged patient who developed increasing dyspnoea on exertion. The patient history included auscultation inferring a split S2 heart sound, a chest x-ray demonstrating cardiomegaly and the resulting referral for an MRI at another institution. The results of this indicated a dilated right heart and a septum primum…

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Caseous Mitral Annular Calcification

Case Study: Caseous Mitral Annular Calcification

Introduction Caseous mitral annular calcification is considered to be a rare and incidental echocardiographic finding with no ‘mass-related events’ detected by Harpaz et al. They describe diagnosis of caseous calcification had little impact on patient symptoms and morbidity. In this case study however, extrusion of the caseous mass was associated with an episode of acute…

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Cardiac Metastases with echocardiography

Case Study: Cardiac Metastases – An unusual cause of left atrial mass

A 33 year old gentleman was referred with increasing neck swelling in the cervical region. Biopsy of the swelling confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. A staging CT of the chest revealed a 4 X 4cm filling defect within the left atrium. Echocardiogram performed showed abnormal left ventricular function. A large homogenous irregular sessile mass measuring 5.6…

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Right Atrial Myxoma

Case Study: Right Atrial Myxoma

Introduction: Atrial myxomas are the most common primary heart tumours. Because of nonspecific symptoms, early diagnosis may be a challenge. Left atrial myxoma may or may not produce characteristic findings on auscultation. Two-dimensional echocardiography is the diagnostic procedure of choice. Most atrial myxomas are benign and can be removed by surgical resection. They affect the…

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Cardiomyopathy on ultrasound

Case Study: Isolated Left Ventricular Non-compaction of Left Ventricle

Introduction: Isolated non compaction of the left ventricle is a rare cardiomyopathy. It is relatively recently recognized entity categorized as “unclassified cardiomyopathy” by the World Health Organization1. It is caused by failure of the developing myocardium to become compact thereby resulting in “spongy myocardium”.2 It may occur as a sporadic disease or be familial. This…

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