Category Archives: Electrophysiology (EP)

Electrograms in EP

An Introduction to Electrograms

Invasive cardiac electrophysiology is based on the interpretation of intra-cardiac signals (electrograms or EGMs for short) to study arrhythmias and guide ablation. Why are intra-cardiac signals important? The surface ECG represents the sum of electrical activity from the heart, presenting lots of information in one easily digestible form. However it does not reveal the timing…

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electrophysiology anatomy

Anatomical Descriptions and Fluoroscopic Views

More than other disciplines electrophysiology (EP) requires the synthesis of different types of information to develop understanding. Despite years working in the environment some individuals fail to develop an interest in EP because they fail to appreciate and combine essential elements.   These elements include: The surface ECG Detailed cardiac anatomy Anatomical description and fluoroscopic…

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Electrophysiology education entrainment

Introduction to Entrainment

Entrainment is a powerful tool in the armoury of the electrophysiologist. It can be used to probe the mechanism of arrhythmias, as a method for differential diagnosis and to locate targets for ablation. Entrainment mapping is employed in determining sites that are part of a re-entry circuit and those that are not. Moreover it allows…

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Wolff Parkinson White (WPW) Syndrome

Wolff Parkinson White (WPW) Syndrome

“WPW syndrome is present in approximately three in every 2,000 people.” In 1930 Wolff, Parkinson and White first described the syndrome that bears their name as “bundle-branch block with short P-R interval in healthy young people prone to paroxysmal tachycardia.” We now know that the condition is caused by one or more strands of myocardial…

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AVNRT Electrophysiology

AVNRT: The most common regular tachycardia

The anatomical atrio-ventricular (AV) node was first described in 1906 but even today much about it and the tachycardia with which it is associated remains only partially understood. AVNRT (AV node re-entrant tachycardia) is the most common regular supra-ventricular tachycardia treated by ablation. More common in women than men it usually occurs in the absence…

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